|"Air Defense Radars"|
|"PRO_United States of America"|
|notes||"This is the model used in the Norwegian NALLADS air defense system which combines the radar and RBS-70 missiles with 20 mm anti-aircraft guns to provide low-level air defense for the combat brigades of the Norwegian army. Mounted on a BV-206 all-terrain tracked vehicle this version has an instrumented range of 50 km (31 mi). The antenna extends to a height of 7 meters (23 ft) and the system can control up to 20 firing units of guns or missiles or a combination of both. The Command and Control system features fully automatic track initiation, target tracking, target identification (IFF), target classification and designation, hovering helicopter detection threat evaluation, and handling of "pop-up" targets. It can also exchange data with Giraffe 75 or AMB systems as part of a larger network.
OVERVIEW: The Giraffe is a mobile, medium-range air identification and surveillance radar. Giraffe is a powerful 3D surveillance radar system and Command and Control system intended for short and medium-range surveillance and ground-based air defense. In addition, it can also warn of incoming rocket, artillery and mortar rounds, as well as provide coastal surveillance.
DETAILS: The Giraffe is a frequency agile, low to medium altitude pulse doppler air search radar and combat control center which can be used in mobile or static short to medium range air defense applications. Giraffe is designed to detect low-altitude, low cross-section aircraft targets in conditions of severe clutter and electronic countermeasures. When equipped as an air-defense command center Giraffe provides an air picture to each firing battery using manpack radio communication. It is normally housed in a single 6m long shelter mounted on an all-terrain vehicle for high mobility.
NOTES: Several variants available. The first systems were produced in 1977. By 2007, some 450 units of all types are reported as having been delivered. User countries include Brazil, Croatia, Estonia, Finland, France, the Indonesian Army, Ireland Irish Army, Latvia, Lithuania, Greece, Norway, Pakistan, Serbia, Singapore, Sweden, Thailand Navy, and the United States."|
|proliferation||"Brazil, Croatia, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Indonesia, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Pakistan, Serbia, Singapore, Sweden, Thailand, United States of America"|
|"United States of America"|
|name||"Dimensions (Chassis: BV-206)"|
|name||"Cargo Space, Front"|
|name||"Cargo Space, Rear"|
|value||"11.6/13.6 kPa (1.68/1.97 PSI)"|
|name||"Gross Vehicle Weight"|
|value||"2.24 tons (630 kg in front compartment and 1,610 kg in rear compartment)."|
|value||"Air Defense Radar"|
|value||"Military Technical Institute Belgrade"|
|name||"Number of Targets"|
|value||"The frequency-agile radar provides automatic location, pop-up handling, identification, and evaluation of threats and can handle up to 20 targets simultaneously, with automatic track initiation on its two operator stations, each of which is equipped with a 19-inch full-color raster scan display."|
|name||"Advanced Moving Target Indicator (MTI)"|
|value||"The system also has an advanced Moving Target Indicator (MTI) filter with automatic wind compensation and automatic detection of hovering helicopters."|
|value||"Data communications consist of narrowband data channels for plot and track transmission."|
|value||"The graphics generators are based on three Motorola 68020 32-bit microprocessors, and the complete Giraffe 50AT system has a total of seven CPUs – implemented as gate-array single-chip processors – with a combined power of some 10 MIPS (million instructions per second)."|
|value||"Software is written in a real-time variant of the Pascal high-order language, and comprises 50,000 to 200,000 lines of source code, depending on the application."|
|value||"Up to three NALLADS can be linked together to defend an extremely large area. The then Ericsson Microwave Systems in conjunction with Ericsson Radar Norge developed the software for the system while the weapon-control terminals came from Siemens (Norway)."|
|value||"The Giraffe 50AT has the ability to exchange data with GIRAFFE 75 and AMB systems to facilitate radar cooperation and the compilation of a local air picture. The system can also be integrated with an IFF subsystem (including Mk XII)."|
|name||"Automotive (Chassis: BV-206)"|
|value||"Ford Cologne V6 gasoline, or Mercedes Benz turbodiesel"|
|name||"Speed, Maximum Road"|
|name||"Speed, Maximum Swim"|
|value||"Cold starting to -52C"|
|name||"Grade, hard surface"|
|name||"Grade, Deep Snow"|
|value||"Depends on the Variant. An armored variant of the Bv 206 is the Bv 206S. It has modified cabs and armor plating on all its bodywork. A recent member of the Bv 206 family is the BvS 10 improved armored version. It is a new larger vehicle, with improved load capacity. The BvS 10 has the same superior mobility in difficult terrain, combined with the same speed on road."|
|name||"Armor, Explosive Reactive"|
|name||"Active Protection System"|
|notes||"This is a short-range (40 kilometers (25 mi) instrumented) air defense radar with command and control capability. It employs a folding antenna mast that extends to a height of 13 meters (43 ft) when deployed and can be integrated with an Interrogation Friend or Foe (IFF) capability. Coverage is stated to be from ground level to 10,000 meters (33,000 ft) in altitude. In Swedish service, the radar is designated PS-70 and PS-701 and provides target data to RBS-70 SHORADS missiles and 40mm Bofors guns. A more powerful version with a 60 kW transmitter is known commercially as Super Giraffe and in Swedish service as PS-707. These radars are no longer marketed."|
|notes||"This is the model used in the Norwegian NALLADS air defense system which combines the radar and RBS-70 missiles with 20 mm anti-aircraft guns to provide low-level air defense for the combat brigades of the Norwegian army. Mounted on a BV-206 all-terrain tracked vehicle this version has an instrumented range of 50 km (31 mi). The antenna extends to a height of 7 meters (23 ft) and the system can control up to 20 firing units of guns or missiles or a combination of both. The Command and Control system features fully automatic track initiation, target tracking, target identification (IFF), target classification and designation, hovering helicopter detection threat evaluation, and handling of "pop-up" targets. It can also exchange data with Giraffe 75 or AMB systems as part of a larger network."|
|notes||"This features a 13 meters (43 ft) antenna mast and is normally carried on a 6x6 5-ton cross-country truck which carries the radar and command and control shelter. The instrumented range is 75 km (47 mi) and altitude coverage extends from ground-level to 10,000 meters (33,000 ft). An optional add-on unit extends the radar's coastal defense capabilities. In Swedish service, the radar is designated PS-90. In the Greek Air Force Giraffe, 75 is used in combination with Contraves (now Rheinmetall defense) Skyguard/Sparrow fire control systems. 1 Giraffe typically controls 2 Skyguard systems each with 2 twin 35 mm GDF-005 guns and 2 Sparrow surface-to-air missile launchers."|
|notes||"Optimized as a mobile radar for un-manned remote-controlled applications as a "gap-filler" in air defense early warning systems concentrating on small, low-flying targets over a long distance. It can also be employed as a coastal surveillance radar where targets are small surface vessels and sea-skimming missiles or aircraft. A new antenna extends range coverage to 180 km (110 mi) with altitude coverage from ground level to 6,000 meters (20,000 ft). The antenna mast extends to 8 meters (26 ft)."|
|notes||"Giraffe Agile Multi-Beam is a passive electronically scanned array radar, providing multi-beam 3-Dimensional air coverage at 5.4 to 5.9 GHz with instrumented ranges of 30 km (19 mi), 60 km (37 mi), and 100 km (62 mi), the altitude coverage is extended from ground-level to 20,000 meters (66,000 ft) with 70-degree elevation coverage. The data rate is 1-scan per second. Its maintained pulse density suppresses high cluttering in adverse weather conditions. Ultra-low antenna side-lobes combined with pulse-to-pulse and burst-to-burst frequency agility provide some resistance to jamming. As in previous Giraffe radars, automatic hovering helicopter detection is provided as is a rocket, artillery, and mortar locating function, allowing the radar to detect incoming rounds and give 20 seconds or more of warning before impact. Giraffe AMB is the principal sensor of the Swedish RBS 23 BAMSE air defense missile system but is available for many other applications. The Giraffe AMB can be delivered with ground surveillance options fitted."|
|notes||"This is a coastal defense radar based on the Giraffe 75 antenna and Giraffe AMB processing system optimized for surface and low-altitude coverage for the Swedish Amphibious Forces (formerly the Coastal Artillery). It is mounted on a MOWAG Piranha 10x10 armored vehicle. 6 systems are in service."|
|name||"Sea Giraffe AMB"|
|notes||"Saab's Sea Giraffe AMB is the naval variant of their Giraffe radar with 3D AMB technology. It can detect air and surface targets from the horizon up to a height of 20,000 meters (66,000 ft) at elevations up to 70°, and can simultaneously handle multiple threats approaching from different directions and altitudes, including diving anti-ship missiles. Also, it is specialized for rapidly detecting small, fast-moving targets at all altitudes and small surface targets in severe clutter. Sea Giraffe AMB is installed on the Republic of Singapore Navy's upgraded Victory-class corvette and US Navy's Independence-class of Littoral Combat Ships and has the designation AN/SPS 77 V(1) for LCS 2 and 4, and AN/SPS 77 V for LCS 6 and higher."|
|notes||"Saab Electronic Defence Systems (EDS) in May 2014 unveiled two new classes of active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar—three land-based systems (Giraffe 1X, Giraffe 4A, and Giraffe 8A) and two naval variants (Sea Giraffe 1X and Sea Giraffe 4A)."|
|notes||"At the top end of the range is the Giraffe 8A, a long-range IEEE S-band (NATO E/F) 3D sensor that can be produced in fixed, transportable, and fully mobile configurations.
Intended primarily for remote operation as part of an integrated air defense network, Giraffe 8A can also be operated locally. It has an instrumented range of 470 km and an altitude capability of more than 40,000m, bringing true long-range air defense capability to the Saab radar family for the first time. Giraffe 8A produces 15 stacked beams to provide elevation coverage from ground level to more than 65°. It can operate in a continuous 360° scan mode, rotating mechanically at 24rpm, or can be steered electronically across an operator-specified sector of 40° to 100°. More than 1,000 air defense tracks can be maintained, and the system also has anti-ballistic missile capability, in which case more than 100 tracks can be followed.
Saab has paid special attention to Giraffe 8A's electronic counter-countermeasures properties. The radar generates very low sidelobes and incorporates sophisticated frequency agility in pulse-to-pulse, burst-to-burst, and scan-to-scan regimes. It also switches and staggers pulse repetition frequency and transmits random jitter to further confuse countermeasures. It automatically selects the least jammed frequencies and can transmit intermittently or randomly. The radar offers a passive detection and tracking capability against jammers."|
|notes||"While Giraffe 8A occupies the high end of the family, Saab has introduced new radars in the medium-range category in the form of Giraffe 4A and Sea Giraffe 4A for naval use.
Employing similar S-band technology to the larger radar, Giraffe 4A offers true 3D multirole capability, combining the air defense and weapon locating tasks in a single unit.
Able to be airlifted in a single C-130 load, Giraffe 4A can be deployed by two people in less than 10 minutes. It can operate as a standalone."|
|notes||"To complete its new line-up, Saab has introduced two short-range radars, Giraffe 1X and Sea Giraffe 1X. Working in the IEEE X-band (NATO I-band), Giraffe 1X is intended primarily as a highly mobile radar that can work with very short-range air defense systems on the battlefield or at sea.
Weighing less than 300 kg, Giraffe 1X can be mounted on a small vehicle or vessel or in fixed installations such as on a building or a mast. The radar has a sense-and-warn function and can be optionally configured for weapon location."|