WEG MediaWiki

M-30 (M1938) Russian 122mm Towed Howitzer

tiers
false
false
false
true
categories
"WEG"
"Artillery"
"Gun/Howitzer Artillery Systems"
"Towed Gun/Howitzer Artillery Systems"
"Russia (RUS)"
"PRO_Afghanistan"
"PRO_Algeria"
"PRO_Armenia"
"PRO_Bangladesh"
"PRO_Bolivia (Plurinational State of)"
"PRO_Cambodia"
"PRO_China"
"PRO_Congo"
"PRO_Cuba"
"PRO_Egypt"
"PRO_Ethiopia"
"PRO_Guinea-Bissau"
"PRO_Indonesia"
"PRO_Iran (Islamic Republic of)"
"PRO_Iraq"
"PRO_Kurdistan"
"PRO_Kyrgyzstan"
"PRO_Laos (People's Democratic Republic)"
"PRO_Lebanon"
"PRO_Macedonia"
"PRO_Moldova"
"PRO_Mongolia"
"PRO_Mozambique"
"PRO_North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of Korea)"
"PRO_Pakistan"
"PRO_Romania"
"PRO_Russian Federation"
"PRO_Singapore"
"PRO_South Korea (Republic of Korea)"
"PRO_South Sudan"
"PRO_Sudan"
"PRO_Syria"
"PRO_Tanzania"
"PRO_Uganda"
"PRO_Ukraine"
"PRO_Uzbekistan"
"PRO_Yemen"
"PRO_Zimbabwe"
"Land"
"Tier4"
notes"The 122 mm howitzer M1938 (M-30) was a Soviet 121.92 mm (4.8 inches) howitzer. The weapon was developed by the design bureau of Motovilikha Plants, headed by F. F. Petrov, in the late 1930s, and was in production from 1939 to 1955. The M-30 saw action in World War II, mainly as a divisional artillery piece of the Red Army (RKKA). Captured guns were also employed later in the conflict by the German Wehrmacht and the Finnish Army. Post World War II the M-30 saw combat in numerous conflicts of the mid-to late twentieth century in service of other countries' armies, notably in the Middle East. The barrel of the M-30 was of built-up construction and consisted of a liner, jacket, and breech. The breechblock was of interrupted screw type, with forced cartridge case extraction. The gun was equipped with a hydraulic recoil buffer and hydropneumatic recuperator. A panoramic sight was used for both indirect and direct fire. The M-30 had a modern split trail carriage with leaf spring suspension and steel wheels with rubber tires. It was usually towed by vehicle without a limber. The carriage allowed for a towing speed of up to 50 km/h on paved road and up to 35 km/h on gravel or dirt roads, although the gun could also be moved by a team of six horses, in which case a limber was used. When the trails were swung open the suspension locked automatically. In an emergency it was possible to shoot in a "single trail" mode, at the price of a drastically reduced traverse (1°30'). The time required to set the gun up for combat was about 1–1.5 minutes. The carriage of the M-30 was later used for the D-1 152 mm howitzer. In the M-30, RKKA units finally received a modern divisional howitzer which successfully combined increased firepower and better mobility with reliability and ease of use. A summary of its employment by the Red Army was provided by Marshal G. F. Odintsov, who said "Nothing can be better". The long post-war employment of the howitzer is additional testimony to its combat and operational utility and effectiveness. It is hard to compare the M-30 directly with contemporary foreign guns since the artillery of France, Germany, and United States employed in similar roles was either the much smaller 105 mm (Great Britain used the even smaller—87.6 mm—25 pounder gun-howitzer) or much larger 150 to 155 mm caliber guns. Howitzers of similar calibers existed but most of those were World War I era pieces, such as the Vickers 114 mm howitzer used by the Finnish Army. Naturally, 150 mm howitzers were more powerful, but much heavier than the M-30; while 105 mm pieces were lighter but their smaller shells contained fewer explosives. The most direct German equivalent was the 10.5 cm leFH 18 light howitzer. Weighing 1985 kg, it had a maximum elevation of 42°, muzzle velocity of 470 m/s, and maximum range of 10,675 m. In the upgraded leFH 18/40 version, muzzle velocity was improved to 540 m/с, elevation to 45° and range to 12,325 m. About equal in range, the German howitzer had a less powerful HE shell and its smaller maximum elevation made it less effective against dug-in troops, although it also weighed some 400 kg less than M-30. Both guns were well suited for mass production with 16.887 M-30s and 15.388 leFH 18 built-in 1941–45."
dateOfIntroduction1938
countryOfOrigin"Russia (RUS)"
proliferation"Afghanistan, Algeria, Armenia, Bangladesh, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Cambodia, China, Congo, Cuba, Egypt, Ethiopia, Guinea-Bissau, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Kurdistan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos (People's Democratic Republic), Lebanon, Macedonia, Moldova, Mongolia, Mozambique, North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of Korea), Pakistan, Romania, Russian Federation, Singapore, South Korea (Republic of Korea), South Sudan, Sudan, Syria, Tanzania, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Yemen, Zimbabwe"
selectedregions
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checkedregions
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checkedcountries
"Afghanistan"
"Algeria"
"Armenia"
"Bangladesh"
"Bolivia (Plurinational State of)"
"Cambodia"
"China"
"Congo"
"Cuba"
"Egypt"
"Ethiopia"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Indonesia"
"Iran (Islamic Republic of)"
"Iraq"
"Kurdistan"
"Kyrgyzstan"
"Laos (People's Democratic Republic)"
"Lebanon"
"Macedonia"
"Moldova"
"Mongolia"
"Mozambique"
"North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of Korea)"
"Pakistan"
"Romania"
"Russian Federation"
"Singapore"
"South Korea (Republic of Korea)"
"South Sudan"
"Sudan"
"Syria"
"Tanzania"
"Uganda"
"Ukraine"
"Uzbekistan"
"Yemen"
"Zimbabwe"
dis
name"122MM TWD HOW M30"
string"01.01.119.005.003.000.000"
images
"M-30_TA(C).jpg"
"M-30_TA(B).jpg"
"M-30_TA(A).jpg"
sections
name"System"
properties
name"Alternative Designation"
value"M-30; M1938"
name"Type"
value"Towed Howitzer"
name"Caliber"
value"122mm"
name"Manufacturer"
value"Plants No. 92 & No. 9"
name"In Service"
value"1939-Present"
name"Crew"
value"8"
name"Carriage"
value"Split trail"
name"Displacement Time"
value"less than 2 minutes"
name"Emplacement Time"
value"less than 2 minutes"
name"Dimensions"
properties
name"Length"
value"5.9 m (19 ft 4 in) (with limber)"
name"Barrel Length"
value"bore: 2.67 m (8 ft 9 in) L/21.9 overall: 2.8 m (9 ft 2 in) L/23 (without breech block)"
name"Width"
value"1.98 m (6 ft 6 in)"
name"Height"
value"1.82 m (6 ft)"
name"Weight"
value"combat: 2,450 kg (5,401 lbs) travel: 3,100 kg (6,834 lbs)"
name"Howitzer"
sections
name"System"
properties
name"Name"
value"M-30"
name"Type"
value"Towed 12mm Howitzer"
name"Caliber"
value"122"
units"mm"
name"Breech"
value"Interrupted screw"
name"Recoil"
value"Hydro-pneumatic"
name"Carriage"
value"Split trail"
name"Elevation"
value"-3° to 63.5°"
name"Traverse"
value"49°"
name"Rate of FIre"
value"5-6 rounds per minute"
name"Maximum Firing Range"
value"11.8 km (7.33 mi)"
name"Ammunition (Option 1)"
properties
name"Name"
value"BP-460A"
name"Type"
value"HEAT"
name"Caliber"
value"122"
units"mm"
name"Shell"
value"122 x 284mm .R loading charge and projectile."
name"Shell Weight"
value"INA"
name"Maximum Range"
value"2,000 m"
name"Ammunition (Option 2)"
properties
name"Name"
value"OF-462"
name"Type"
value"HE-Frag, steel (1,000 fragments to hit personnel in radius of 30 meters)"
name"Caliber"
value"122"
units"mm"
name"Shell"
value"122 x 284mm .R loading charge and projectile."
name"Shell Weight"
value"21.76 kg"
name"Maximum Range"
value"11,720"
name"Ammunition (Option 3)"
properties
name"Name"
value"H-462"
name"Type"
value"Chemical"
name"Caliber"
value"122"
units"mm"
name"Shell"
value"122 x 284mm .R loading charge and projectile."
name"Shell Weight"
value"21.8 kg"
name"Maximum Range"
value"11,800 m"
name"Fire Control"
properties
name"Name"
value"INA"
name"Computerized FCS"
value"No"
name"Direct Fire"
value"Yes"
name"Indirect Fire"
value"Yes"
name"Collimator"
value"INA"
variants
name"M-30S"
notes"Slightly modified variant; was used as the main armament of the SU-122 assault gun."
name"U-11"
notes"A gun with identical ballistics, but equipped with a more compact recoil mechanism for easier mounting in vehicles. It was tried on the experimental SU-122M and rejected due to insufficient reliability. A variant of the same gun was also mounted on the experimental Obiekt 234 tank, also known as Iosif Stalin no. 2 (not to be confused with the IS-2)."
name"D-6"
notes"Another vehicle mounted gun with identical ballistics. It was used on the experimental SU-122-III and, like the U-11, proved unreliable."
name"Type 54"
notes"China Licence version."
name"Type 54-1"
notes"Slightly improved version."
name"Wz.1938/1985"
notes"Existing Wz.1938 that was fitted with a castor wheel, PGO-9H sight and a second firing mechanism for direct fire."
name"M-30M"
notes"In the 1980s Romanian Army M-30s were upgraded with new, larger pneumatic wheels, new brakes, a new optical sight for direct fire and a second height sighting mechanism for anti-tank combat. These upgraded howitzers were designated M-30M."
type"WEG"
version1
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