WEG MediaWiki

M101 American 105mm Towed Howitzer

tiers
false
false
false
true
categories
"WEG"
"Artillery"
"Gun/Howitzer Artillery Systems"
"Towed Gun/Howitzer Artillery Systems"
"United States"
"PRO_Argentina"
"PRO_Austria"
"PRO_Bahrain"
"PRO_Bangladesh"
"PRO_Belgium"
"PRO_Benin"
"PRO_Bolivia (Plurinational State of)"
"PRO_Bosnia and Herzegovina"
"PRO_Brazil"
"PRO_Burkina Faso"
"PRO_Cameroon"
"PRO_Canada"
"PRO_Chad"
"PRO_Chile"
"PRO_China"
"PRO_Colombia"
"PRO_Croatia"
"PRO_Denmark"
"PRO_Dominican Republic"
"PRO_Ecuador"
"PRO_El Salvador"
"PRO_France"
"PRO_Gabon"
"PRO_Germany"
"PRO_Greece"
"PRO_Guatemala"
"PRO_Honduras"
"PRO_Indonesia"
"PRO_Iran (Islamic Republic of)"
"PRO_Iraq"
"PRO_Israel"
"PRO_Japan"
"PRO_Laos (People's Democratic Republic)"
"PRO_Lebanon"
"PRO_Liberia"
"PRO_Lithuania"
"PRO_Macedonia"
"PRO_Madagascar"
"PRO_Malaysia"
"PRO_Mauritania"
"PRO_Mexico"
"PRO_Morocco"
"PRO_Myanmar"
"PRO_Netherlands"
"PRO_New Zealand"
"PRO_Nicaragua"
"PRO_Norway"
"PRO_Pakistan"
"PRO_Paraguay"
"PRO_Peru"
"PRO_Philippines"
"PRO_Portugal"
"PRO_Rwanda"
"PRO_Saudi Arabia"
"PRO_Senegal"
"PRO_South Africa"
"PRO_South Korea (Republic of Korea)"
"PRO_Spain"
"PRO_Sudan"
"PRO_Thailand"
"PRO_Togo"
"PRO_Tunisia"
"PRO_Uruguay"
"PRO_Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)"
"PRO_Viet Nam"
"Land"
"Tier4"
notes"The 105 mm M101A1 howitzer (previously designated M2A1) is an artillery piece developed and used by the United States. It was the standard U.S. light field howitzer in World War II and saw action in both the European and Pacific theaters. Entering production in 1941, it quickly gained a reputation for accuracy and a powerful punch. The M101A1 fires 105 mm high explosive (HE) semi-fixed ammunition and has a range of 12,330 yards (11,270 m), making it suitable for supporting infantry. All of these qualities of the weapon, along with its widespread production, led to its adoption by many countries after the war. Its ammunition type also became the standard for many foreign countries' later models. During the Second World War, U.S. artillery regiments consisted of an HQ detachment, one 155 mm artillery battalion, and three 105 mm artillery battalions. Both the 155 mm and 105 mm battalions had twelve guns each, divided into three batteries of four guns. That gave each regiment a total of twelve 155 mm howitzers and thirty-six 105 mm howitzers. The U.S. military artillery designation system was changed in 1962, redesignating the 105 mm M2A1 howitzer the M101A1. The gun continued to see service in the Korean and Vietnam Wars. Though a similar model, the M102 howitzer, shared the same roles in battle, it never fully replaced the M101A1. Today, the M101A1 has been retired by the U.S. military, though it continues to see service with many other countries. By the end of the Second World War, 8,536 105 mm towed howitzers had been built and post-war production continued at Rock Island Arsenal until 1953, by which time 10,202 had been built. The Canadian Army continued to use the M2A1 as the C2 Howitzer until 1997 when a modification was made to extend its service life; it is now designated the C3. The changes include a longer barrel, a muzzle brake, reinforced trails, and the removal of shield flaps. It remains the standard light howitzer of Canadian Forces Reserve units. The C3 is used by Reserve units in Glacier National Park in British Columbia as a means of avalanche control. In addition, the M101 has found a second use in the U.S. as an avalanche control gun, supervised by the US Forest Service and the US Army TACOM's cooperative effort in the Avalanche Artillery Users of North America Committee (AAUNAC). The M101 is used by a number of ski areas and state departments of transportation for long-range control work. Under the designation of M2A2, the 2nd Battalion, 2nd Field Artillery Regiment, 428th Field Artillery Brigade performs salutes with 7 guns with World War Two Medal of Honor recipient names on their barrels. France and the State of Vietnam used M2A1 howitzers during the First Indochina War, as did the Viet Minh guerilla forces they fought against, who were supplied with at least 24 by the People's Republic of China, along with other captured American artillery pieces and mortars formerly operated by both Nationalist Chinese forces (the Kuomintang military) and US troops fighting in Korea.[citation needed] Today upgraded M2A1 howitzers (some of which have been mounted on trucks and employed as self-propelled artillery) are still being used by the People's Army of Vietnam (the VPA). The French Army used the M2 howitzer, designated HM2, in the Algerian War and during the Opération Tacaud in Chad. France later supplied a battery of HM2 to the Rwandan Armed Forces during the Rwandan Civil War that led to the Rwandan genocide. A number of M2/M101 howitzers were used by the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and approximately 50 were inherited by Croatia, of which four are still in use for training with the Croatian Army. M2 Howitzers are still in limited service in the Australian Army Reserve but are being replaced with 81-millimetre (3.2 in) mortars with an emphasis on the retention of indirect fire support skills. In regular service, they were replaced by the 105 mm L119 Hamel gun and the 155-millimeter (6.1 in) M198 howitzers. Two M2 howitzers (1942) are still employed in providing the gun salute at Kristiansten Fortress, in Trondheim, Norway. M101/M2 is one of three approved salute guns in the Norwegian armed forces and has been reduced to a caliber of 75 millimeters (3.0 in) for this purpose. They are used for gun salutes also at Rena and Setermoen. Five M101A1 howitzers are owned by the Virginia Military Institute and are used for parades, evening retreats, and other ceremonies."
dateOfIntroduction1941
countryOfOrigin"United States"
proliferation"Argentina, Austria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belgium, Benin, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Canada, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Croatia, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, France, Gabon, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Honduras, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Israel, Japan, Laos (People's Democratic Republic), Lebanon, Liberia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mauritania, Mexico, Morocco, Myanmar, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, South Africa, South Korea (Republic of Korea), Spain, Sudan, Thailand, Togo, Tunisia, Uruguay, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), Viet Nam"
selectedregions
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checkedregions
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checkedcountries
"Argentina"
"Austria"
"Bahrain"
"Bangladesh"
"Belgium"
"Benin"
"Bolivia (Plurinational State of)"
"Bosnia and Herzegovina"
"Brazil"
"Burkina Faso"
"Cameroon"
"Canada"
"Chad"
"Chile"
"China"
"Colombia"
"Croatia"
"Denmark"
"Dominican Republic"
"Ecuador"
"El Salvador"
"France"
"Gabon"
"Germany"
"Greece"
"Guatemala"
"Honduras"
"Indonesia"
"Iran (Islamic Republic of)"
"Iraq"
"Israel"
"Japan"
"Laos (People's Democratic Republic)"
"Lebanon"
"Liberia"
"Lithuania"
"Macedonia"
"Madagascar"
"Malaysia"
"Mauritania"
"Mexico"
"Morocco"
"Myanmar"
"Netherlands"
"New Zealand"
"Nicaragua"
"Norway"
"Pakistan"
"Paraguay"
"Peru"
"Philippines"
"Portugal"
"Rwanda"
"Saudi Arabia"
"Senegal"
"South Africa"
"South Korea (Republic of Korea)"
"Spain"
"Sudan"
"Thailand"
"Togo"
"Tunisia"
"Uruguay"
"Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)"
"Viet Nam"
dis
name"105MM TOWED M101"
string"01.01.225.005.003.001.000"
images
"M101TA(C).jpg"
"M101TA(B).jpg"
"M101TA(A).jpg"
sections
name"System"
properties
name"Alternative Designation"
value"M101; M101A1"
name"Type"
value"105 mm Towed Howitzer"
name"In Service"
value"1941-Present"
name"Crew"
value"8"
units"ea"
name"Carriage"
value"split trail, post-war designation of M2A1 on carriage M2A1"
name"Displacement Time"
value"Less than 2 Minutes"
name"Emplacement Time"
value"Less than 2 Minutes"
name"Dimensions"
properties
name"Length, Overall"
value"5.99 m"
name"Barrel Length"
value"2.57 m"
name"Rifling Length"
value"1.98 m"
name"Width, Firing"
value"3.66 m"
name"Width, Traveling"
value"2.16 m"
name"Height"
value"1.57 m"
name"Ground Clearance"
value"356 mm"
name"Weight"
value"2,258 kg"
name"Howitzer"
sections
name"System"
properties
name"Name"
value"M101"
name"Type"
value"Towed Howitzer"
name"Caliber"
value"105 mm"
name"Carriage"
value"split trail, post-war designation of M2A1 on carriage M2A1"
name"Bore"
value"105-mm/23-cal M2A1 or M2A2, rifled (barrel has a life of 20,000 rounds)"
name"Rifling"
value"1 in 20 constant twist, 36 grooves"
name"Elevation"
value"-5 deg to 66 deg (-89 mils to 1,156 mils)"
name"Traverse"
value"23 deg (409 mils) to each side"
name"Breech Type"
value"horizontal sliding wedge"
name"Recoil System"
value"hydropneumatic"
name"Rate of Fire, Sustained"
value"3 rds/min"
name"Rate of Fire, Maximum"
value"10 rds/min"
name"Ammunition (Option 1)"
properties
name"Name"
value"M548"
name"Type"
value"HERA"
name"Caliber"
value"105 mm"
name"Length"
value"830 mm"
name"Weight"
value"17.46 kg"
name"Muzzle Velocity"
value"548 mps"
name"Maximum Range"
value"14,600 m"
name"Ammunition (Option 2)"
properties
name"Name"
value"M546"
name"Type"
value"APERS-T"
name"Caliber"
value"105 mm"
name"Length"
value"867 mm"
name"Weight"
value"17.35 kg"
name"Muzzle Velocity"
value"549 mps"
name"Maximum Range"
value"11,600 m"
name"Ammunition (Option 3)"
properties
name"Name"
value"INA"
name"Type"
value"HE, GB, HD, WP, HC, ILLUM"
name"Caliber"
value"105 mm"
name"Length"
value"Varies"
name"Weight"
value"Varies"
name"Muzzle Velocity"
value"472.4 mps"
name"Maximum Range"
value"11,270 m"
name"Fire Control"
properties
name"Name"
value"INA"
name"Computerized FCS"
value"No"
name"Direct Fire"
value"Yes"
name"Indirect Fire"
value"Yes"
name"Collimator"
value"INA"
variants
name"M101"
notes"The original production model had the M2A1 carriage and the M2A1 model gun, which had a straight barrel."
name"M101A1"
notes"This is covered in the main entry. It has a M2A2 carriage (which differs from the M2A1 chiefly in the amount of shielding) and the M2A2 gun, which has a thickened muzzle."
name"German M101 modification"
notes"It features a longer barrel with single-baffle muzzle brake, new breech ring and new sights. Maximum range is 15,420 yds (14,100 m)."
name"M101/33 Upgrade"
notes"This was proposed by RDM (De Rotterdamsche Droogdok Maatschappij BV) Defence Engineering of Rotterdam, Netherlands. It features a longer barrel of 33 calibers; progressive twist rifling increasing from 1 in 35 to 1 in 18 over the first 9 ft 2 in (2.974 m) and holding 1 in 18 over last 12 in (306 mm ); and a slotted muzzle brake. The loaded weight increases to 5,247 lb (2,380 kg). In March 1994, RDM was awarded a US$13.75 million contract by the Canadian army to upgrade 96 M101 howitzers to the M101/33 standard. The contract included two options, one for an additional 29 howitzers, and another for an additional 60. The first upgraded howitzers were shipped back to Canada in late 1995 with the entire batch of 96 to be completed in 1998. It was also trialed in Indonesia and Malaysia. In 1994, a single model of a Brazilian M101 was upgraded by RDM with a 37-caliber barrel from the Royal Ordnance L118 Light Gun. At the time, Brazil had a requirement for up to 80 upgraded M101s."
name"M101/LG1 Upgrade"
notes"Giat Industries has developed an upgrade for the M101 that replaces the 23-caliber barrel of the M101 with the 30-caliber barrel used by Giat's LG1 Mk II 105-mm Light Gun. The upgrade allows the M101 to fire new Giat HE extended-range base-bleed ammunition out to 17,500 m (10.9 miles). Giat was awarded a contract by the Philippines in July 1996 to modify 12 M101A1s with the newer barrel. An order for the rest of the Philippines inventory of M101s was seen as possible. Thailand reportedly ordered 300 upgraded kits for its stock of M101s."
type"WEG"
version1
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