|"Gun/Howitzer Artillery Systems"|
|"Self-Propelled Gun/Howitzer Artillery Systems"|
|notes||"The M109A5 is a modified M109A4 it consists of two major improvements: a new M284 cannon and a new M182 gun mount. These improvements provide the M109A5 with a greater range and allow for sustained fire for prolonged periods of time.
Over 950 existing M109s have been rebuilt as the M109A6 Paladin. The Paladin configuration is achieved through extensive modifications to existing M109A2/A3 vehicle hulls and the subsequent introduction of an entirely new turret structure. The remaining M109 howitzer fleet has received the M109A5 upgrade, which included some of the same automotive and crew NBC protection improvements as well as the Paladin's M284 cannon and M182 gun mount.
A requirements survey was forwarded to authorized security assistance customer countries on 10 February 2003, advising of the availability of Long Supply M109A5 self-propelled (SP) 155mm howitzers at a reduced price. The howitzers are available for immediate sale to countries addressed in the survey. These countries were determined by Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Commerce, and State Department review. Upon receiving acknowledgment of interest from a foreign customer addressed in the message, allocations will be made, as received, on a "case by case basis." Allocations may be constrained by the number of available assets remaining and it is possible that all howitzers may be committed.
The M109A5, 155mm SP medium howitzer is a vehicle that provides armored combat support, is air-transportable, internally loaded, and has excellent ground mobility. The M109A5's main armament is the 39-caliber, M284 cannon, which has a maximum range of 23,500 meters with unassisted projectiles and 30,000 meters with Rocket Assisted Projectiles (RAP Rounds). The cab of the M109A5 rotates in a full 360-degree circle, allowing operation of both its primary (the 155mm cannon assembly) and secondary (the M2 heavy barrel caliber 50 machine gun or MK19 40mm Grenade Launcher) armament in any direction. The system is capable of both direct (line of sight) and indirect (out of the line of sight) firing. The vehicles have a cruising range of 220 miles at speeds up to 35 miles per hour.
The M109A5 howitzer gives the customer the maximum flexibility to tailor modifications to meet desired missions requirements. It can accommodate future technology and is economical to purchase, operate, and maintain. The M109 family of howitzers continues to be improved to generate additional operational capabilities and cost savings for the customer. It continues to be backed by the extensive life-cycle sustainment support of the weapon's proponent.
The M109A5 howitzers can be brought to a Fully Mission Capable (FMC) Standard prior to delivery for an additional cost. This option can be achieved at the current storage facility prior to shipment. This program ensures that all of the howitzer's systems and subsystems are fully operational and standards are met in accordance with the Operational Preventative Maintenance Checks and Services (PMCS) of 10/20 Manuals. Oil samples will be taken and analyzed from the engines, transmissions, and hydraulic systems to ensure that these systems are in good shape and do not have any detectable problems. The traversing, elevation, fire control, rammer, personnel heater, gun mount, and cannon systems will be checked for proper operation and repaired as needed.
All of the replenishers, recuperators, and fire control nitrogen charges will be checked and re-charged as needed. The fire extinguishers will be checked for the proper load to ensure that they are fully charged and ready for operation. If the customer plans to use the vehicle with the VIC-1 intercom system, it will be checked to ensure proper operation. The outside of the vehicle will be repainted according to the customer's color requirements, and the inside of the crew compartment will be painted as needed. The fuel system will be flushed and any contaminants will be removed from it. New batteries will be installed in all of the vehicles, and all trackpads with less than 50 percent of life remaining will be replaced.
Finally, the vehicles will be driven two miles as a road test to ensure that they have no mobility problems and each vehicle will have a minimum of 50 gallons of fuel in their tanks for ease of loading and off-loading them during shipping. This proposed repair program is designed to ensure that the customer receives a good-looking, fully operational howitzer for as little cost as possible. If the customer desires additional upgrade component replacement (new 8V71T-91 Series Engines; overhauled/modified XTG-411-4 Transmissions; new T154 track, etc.), their requirements can be easily added to the Scope of Work (SOW) for the repair program and the customer would have to pay for these additional requirements. Further, thirty percent of the M109A5 Howitzers have a restriction on either the Breech Block or Breech Ring; however, these items can be replaced at an additional cost. If the customer selects one of these vehicles during the JVI, the Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) for these items will be provided at that time."|
|parent||"M109 American 155mm Self-Propelled Howitzer"|
|proliferation||"Brazil, CFE Treaty, Chile, Egypt, Greece, Iraq, Israel, Lebanon, Morocco, Pakistan, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Thailand"|
|name||"M109A5 SP HOWITZER"|
|value||"developed by the ground system division of United Defense LP (now BAE Systems Land and Armaments) and manufactured at the Paladin Production Operation centre at Chambersburg, Pennsylvania"|
|value||"5 (chief of section, gunner, assistant gunner, No. 1 cannoneer and driver)"|
|value||"The M108 and M109 shared a common chassis (along with the M113 APC), but the M109 was heavier and had a larger gun. The M108 proved unsuccessful, mainly due to its overly light gun."|
|value||"This variant has an improved M178 mounting, boresight alignment driver and selected RAM and safety kits, which included a fuel system air purge; driver's instrument panel; bustle/rack; propellant stowage; torsion bar; counter-recoil buffer; and upper recoil cylinder. The designation also applies to retrofitted models."|
|name||"Length, Gun Forward"|
|value||"55,000 lb (24,948 kg)"|
|value||"1 x General Motors 8V-71T LHR, 9310cc, 2-cycle diesel"|
|value||"Allison ATD-XTG 411-4A, 4 forward and 2 reverse gears"|
|name||"Speed, Maximum Road"|
|name||"Speed, Average Cross"|
|name||"Speed Maximum Swim"|
|value||"135 gal (511 liters)"|
|value||"torsion bar, 7 road wheels, front drive, rear idler, no return rollers (all models except PIM). The suspension system has been strengthened and an external NATO power receptacle allows the M109A5 to be electrically powered by the M992 field artillery ammunition support vehicle (FAASV)."|
|value||"The M109A5 offers upgraded components providing greater durability. It has a higher horsepower low heat rejection (LHR) engine and an improved transmission for increased performance."|
|value||"M284 39 cal/155mm Rifled Howitzer fitted with Muzzle Brake and Fume Extractor"|
|value||"right-hand rifling with constant, 8.93-deg twist"|
|value||"-3/+75 deg (-53/+1,333 mils)"|
|value||"360 deg (6,400 mils)"|
|name||"Maximum Firing Range"|
|name||"Maximum Rate of Fire"|
|value||"1 rd/min first hour, 4 rd in first 3 min max"|
|name||"Sustained Rate of Fire"|
|value||"This self-propelled artillery system is supported by an associated M992 armored ammunition supply vehicle. It is based on the same tracked chassis as the M109."|
|value||"The cab has a rear bustle rack which provides an increased ammunition stowage capacity."|
|value||"The M109A5 share commonality with all of the other M109 family members and fires all NATO-standard 155-mm ammunition."|
|name||"Ammunition (Option 1)"|
|value||"35.3 in ( 898 mm)"|
|value||"103.2 lb (43.80 kg)"|
|value||"34 Rounds Total of any Combination Projectiles"|
|name||"Ammunition (Option 2)"|
|value||"35.4 in ( 899 mm)"|
|value||"102.5 lb (46.49 kg)"|
|value||"34 Rounds Total of any Combination Projectiles"|
|name||"Ammunition (Option 3)"|
|value||"30.7 in ( 781 mm)"|
|value||"103.0 lb (46.71 kg)"|
|value||"34 Rounds Total of any Combination Projectiles"|
|value||"The elevation/equilibrium cylinder and turret traverse clutch assembly are redesigned to prevent failures."|
|name||"Auxiliary Weapon System"|
|value||"1 x M2 Browning 12.7mm Heavy Machine Gun"|
|value||"Heavy Machine Gun"|
|value||"38 kg (83.78 lb)
58 kg (127.87 lb) with tripod and T&E (Traverse and Elevation Mechanism)"|
|name||"Rate of Fire"|
|name||"Maximum Firing Range"|
|name||"Effective Firing Range"|
|value||"Belt-fed (M2 or M9 links)"|
|value||"Fire-control equipment includes an elbow telescope M118C for direct fire with a magnification of 4x and 10-degree field of view; panoramic telescope M117 for indirect fire and gunner's quadrant M1A1."|
|name||"Thermal Sight Vehicle Commander"|
|name||"Thermal Sight Gunner"|
|name||"Main Gun Stabilization"|
|name||"Night Vision Devices"|
|value||"It has an all weather ballistic shield mounted over the panoramic telescope; counterbalanced travel lock and provisions for mounting the M140 alignment device."|
|value||"Maximum 20-mm light alloy aluminum, small-arms and artillery fragment protection"|
|value||"The turret takes up the rear. On top of the turret, there is a small cupola, from which the commander operates. This cupola is also fitted with a 12.7 mm (.50) M2HB heavy machine gun."|
|name||"Explosive Reactive Armor"|
|name||"Active Protection System"|
|value||"Ventilated face Piece System (VFPS)"|
|value||"CO2 fire extinguisher system in crew and engine compartments"|
|notes||"First produced in 1963. It had a 23 caliber 155 mm M126 gun in an M127 Howitzer Mount, and carried 28 rounds of 155 mm ammunition. It was also armed with a .50cal M2HB machine gun with 500 rounds of ammunition. Easily identified by its short barrel and a double baffle muzzle brake with a large fume extractor just behind it. Maximum range of 14,600 meters."|
|notes||"Replaced the M126 gun with a longer barreled, 39 caliber M185 gun, increasing maximum range to 18,100 meters."|
|notes||"Incorporated 27 Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability (RAM) mid-life improvements. Most notably, the long barreled 155 mm M185 cannon in the new M178 gun mount, ballistic protection for the panoramic telescope, counterbalanced travel lock, and the ability to mount the M140 alignment device. Stowage of 155mm rounds increased from 28 to 36 rounds; .50cal ammunition remained at 500 rounds. During M109A2 production, a slightly simplified version was also produced for export. This had minor internal changes and deleted the hull flotation feature. These were designated M109A1B."|
|name||"M109A3 and M109A3B"|
|notes||"M109A1s and M109A1Bs rebuilt to M109A2 standard respectively. Some A3s feature three contact arm assemblies, while all A2s have five."|
|notes||"M109A2s and M109A3s improved with Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical / Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability (NBC/RAM) improvements, including air purifiers, heaters, and Mission Oriented Protective Posture (MOPP) gear.
The traversing mechanism's clutch is hydraulic, as compared to the electric mechanism on previous M109s, and features a manual override in the event of an electrical failure. The A4 also adds an additional hydraulic filter, for a total of two. Also included is an improvement to the engine starting equipment, greatly improving the ability to start in an emergency.
Ammunition amounts remain the same as two previous models."|
|notes||"Replaces the 155 mm M185 cannon in an M178 mount with a 39-caliber 155 mm M284 cannon in an M182 mount, giving the A5 a maximum range of 22,000 meters with unassisted projectiles and 30,000 meters with Rocket Assisted Projectiles (RAP Rounds). The vehicle can carry 36 complete rounds of ammunition and has a 440 hp engine instead of the standard 405 hp engine."|
|notes||"Various manufacturers have upgraded the fire control and other components of the M109A5. BAE Systems in York PA recently delivered 12 M109A5+ vehicles to Chile and 32 for Brazil."|
|notes||"Overall product improvement in the areas of survivability, RAM, and armament. This includes increased armor, a redesigned internal arrangement for safer ammunition and equipment storage, engine and suspension upgrades, and product improvement of the M284 cannon and M182A1 mount. The greatest difference is the integration of an inertial navigation system, sensors detecting the weapons' lay, automation, and an encrypted digital communication system, which utilizes computer controlled frequency hopping to avoid enemy electronic warfare and allow the howitzer to send grid location and altitude to the battery fire direction center (FDC). The battery FDCs in turn coordinate fires through a battalion or higher FDC. This allows the Palladin to halt from the move and fire within 30 seconds with an accuracy equivalent to the previous models when properly emplaced, laid, and safed—a process that required several minutes under the best of circumstances. Tactically, this improves the system's survivability by allowing the battery to operate dispersed by pairs across the countryside and allowing the howitzer to quickly displace between salvos, or if attacked by indirect fire, aircraft, or ground forces.
Ammunition storage is increased from 36 to 39 155 mm rounds."|
|notes||"This Swiss improved version produced by Ruag incorporates a new Swiss-designed L47 155 mm gun with an increased firing range of up to 36 km. It features inertial navigation system coupled with a new gun-laying system and more ammunition storage(40 rounds, 64 charges). The KAWEST (lit. Kampfwertsteigerung = upgrade of combat capabilities) requires only 6 crew members instead of 8, and is able to fire 3-round bursts within 15 seconds or maintain a constant firing rate of over one round per minute.
Upgraded Swiss PzHb (Panzerhaubitze) 79 and 88 (M109A1) are known as respectively PzHb 79/95 and PzHb 88/95"|
|notes||"Jointly developed by the Dutch firm RDM and the German firm Rheinmetall, the M109L52 was first revealed in 2002. The main improvement was replacing the M126 series gun with the longer 52-caliber cannon from the PzH 2000, thus the MTLS ammunition of the PzH 2000 can be used. In addition, improvements to the loading system were made. This resulted in an increase of the rate of fire to 9–10 rds/min from the original 3 rds/min, and this high rate of fire can be sustained for up to 2 minutes. A total of 35 rounds can be carried."|
|notes||"The current version in service with the Norwegian Army's Artilleribataljonen. 126 M109Gs were acquired from West Germany between 1969–1971. They were then upgraded to the M109A3GN configuration during the latter half of the 1980s. In 2006, there were still 56 M109A3GNs in the Army's inventory, meaning that at least 70 SPGs had been scrapped after the end of the Cold War. 14 of the M109A3GNs received additional upgrades in 2007, and were designated M109A3GNM. The upgrade includes, among other things, new intercom and new navigation and positioning systems. The M109A3GNMs are currently the only SPGs that remain in active service with the remainder of the M109s having been put in storage."|
|notes||"K55/K55A1 are South Korean variants of the M109A2 , originally named KM109A2 with additional domestic augmentations, license-produced by Samsung Techwin. They are fitted with M178 155 mm 39 caliber gun, NBC protection, automatic fire extinguishing system, and a modified ammunition reception module for K56 automatic ammunition resupply vehicle. The Performance Improvement Program variant, K55A1, is a complete domestic overhaul of the K55 which is further augmented by Samsung Thales with modern digital ballistic computers, multifunctional data display and controllers, GPS navigation and target acquisition system, wireless datalink equipment, and upgraded fire control storage battery and power supply unit, to closely match the US military's modernization of the Paladin into next-generation standard. Many improved technologies of the South Korean K9 Thunder were retrofitted on the K55A1. 1,040 howitzers of these variants were produced."|
|notes||"The newest M109 version for U.S. service is the M109A7, formerly known as the M109A6 Paladin Integrated Management (PIM). The M109A7 shares common components with the Bradley Fighting Vehicle such as the engine, transmission, and tracks. This creates commonality with other systems and maximizes cost-savings in production, parts inventory, and maintenance personnel. The M109A7's on-board power systems harness technologies originally developed for the Non-Line-of-Sight Cannon; the electric drive is faster than the previous hydraulic system, and the automatic rammer more consistently rams the round into the gun for consistent velocities and better accuracy. It features a 600-volt on-board power system to accommodate additional armor and future networking technologies as they become ready. The M109A7 can sustain a one-round per-minute rate of fire and a maximum rate of fire of four rounds per-minute."|