WEG MediaWiki

M109 American 155mm Self-Propelled Howitzer (SPH)

tiers
false
false
false
true
categories
"WEG"
"Artillery"
"Gun/Howitzer Artillery Systems"
"Self-Propelled Gun/Howitzer Artillery Systems"
"United States"
"PRO_CFE Treaty"
"PRO_Libya"
"PRO_Thailand"
"Land"
"Tier4"
notes"The M109 is an American 155 mm turreted self-propelled howitzer, first introduced in the early 1960s to replace the M44. It has been upgraded a number of times, most recently to the M109A7. The M109 family is the most common Western indirect-fire support weapon for maneuver brigades of armored and mechanized infantry divisions. The M109 has a crew of four: the section chief/commander, the driver, the gunner, and the ammunition handler/loader. The chief or gunner aims the cannon left or right (deflection) and up and down (quadrant). First produced in 1963. It had a 23 caliber 155 mm M126 gun in an M127 Howitzer Mount and carried 28 rounds of 155 mm ammunition. It was also armed with a .50cal M2HB machine gun with 500 rounds of ammunition. Easily identified by its short barrel and a double baffle muzzle brake with a large fume extractor just behind it. The maximum range of 14,600 meters. The British Army replaced its M109s with the AS-90. Several European armed forces have or are currently replacing older M109s with the German PzH 2000. Upgrades to the M109 were introduced by the U.S. (see variants below) and by Switzerland (KAWEST). With the cancellation of the U.S. Crusader and Non-Line-of-Sight Cannon, the M109A6 ("Paladin") will remain the principal self-propelled howitzer for the U.S. for the foreseeable future until the new M1299 will enter service."
dateOfIntroduction1963
countryOfOrigin"United States"
proliferation"CFE Treaty, Libya, Thailand"
selectedregions
"All Regions"
checkedregions
Empty array
checkedcountries
"CFE Treaty"
"Libya"
"Thailand"
dis
name"M109 155MM SP HOWITZER"
string"01.01.225.004.003.001.000"
images
"M109(A).jpg"
"M109(B).jpg"
"M109(C).jpg"
sections
name"System"
properties
name"Alternative Designation"
value"M109"
name"Type"
value"Self-Propelled Howitzer"
name"Caliber"
value"155 mm"
name"Manufacturer"
value"developed by the ground system division of United Defense LP (now BAE Systems Land and Armaments) and manufactured at the Paladin Production Operation centre at Chambersburg, Pennsylvania"
name"Chassis"
value"The M108 and M109 shared a common chassis (along with the M113 APC), but the M109 was heavier and had a larger gun. The M108 proved unsuccessful, mainly due to its overly light gun."
name"Crew"
value"6"
units"ea"
name"Displacement Time"
value"INA"
name"Emplacement Time"
value"INA"
name"Dimensions"
properties
name"Length, Hull"
value"6.19 m"
name"Length, Gun Forward"
value"9.12 m"
name"Width"
value"3.15 m"
name"Height"
value"3.28 m"
name"Weight"
value"24.07 t"
name"Automotive"
properties
name"Engine Name"
value"Detroit Diesel 8V71T Diesel"
name"Engine Type"
value"Diesel"
name"Engine Power"
value"450"
units"hp"
name"Fuel Capacity"
value"511 liters"
name"Range"
value"390"
units"km"
name"Speed, Maximum Road"
value"65"
units"km/h"
name"Speed, Average Cross"
value"INA"
name"Speed Maximum Swim"
value"Not Amphibious"
name"Gradient"
value"60"
units"%"
name"Side Slope"
value"30"
units"%"
name"Vertical Step"
value"0.53"
units"m"
name"Trench"
value"1.83"
units"m"
name"Fording Depth"
value"1.07"
units"m"
name"Main Gun"
sections
name"System"
properties
name"Name"
value"1 x M126 155mm/L23 Howitzer."
name"Type"
value"Howitzer"
name"Caliber"
value"155mm"
name"Length"
value"INA"
name"Barrel Length"
value"INA"
name"Weight"
value"INA"
name"Cannon Groves"
value"48"
name"Rifling"
value"right-hand rifling with constant, 8.93-deg twist"
name"Breech Type"
value"Welin-step thread"
name"Recoil System"
value"hydropneumatic"
name"Elevation"
value"-3/+75 deg (-53/+1,333 mils)"
name"Traverse"
value"360 deg (6,400 mils)"
name"Maximum Firing Range"
value"14.6 km"
name"Maximum Rate of Fire"
value"4 rpm"
name"Sustained Rate of Fire"
value"2 rpm"
name"Note"
value"This self-propelled artillery system is supported by an associated M992 armored ammunition supply vehicle. It is based on the same tracked chassis as the M109."
name"Ammunition (Option 1)"
properties
name"Name"
value"M712"
name"Type"
value"Copperhead"
name"Caliber"
value"155"
units"mm"
name"Length"
value"54.0 in (1,372 mm)"
name"Weight"
value"140.0 lb (63.50 kg)"
name"Basic Load"
value"28 Rounds Total of any Combination Projectiles"
name"Ammunition (Option 2)"
properties
name"Name"
value"M864"
name"Type"
value"DPICM"
name"Caliber"
value"155 mm"
name"Length"
value"35.3 in (898 mm)"
name"Weight"
value"103.2 lb (43.80 kg)"
name"Basic Load"
value"28 Rounds Total of any Combination Projectiles"
name"Ammunition (Option 3)"
properties
name"Name"
value"M718"
name"Type"
value"RAAMS Long"
name"Caliber"
value"155 mm"
name"Length"
value"30.7 in ( 781 mm)"
name"Weight"
value"103.0 lb (46.71 kg)"
name"Basic Load"
value"28 Rounds Total of any Combination Projectiles"
name"Auxiliary Weapon System"
sections
name"System"
properties
name"Name"
value"1 x M2 Browning"
name"Type"
value"Heavy Machine Gun"
name"Caliber"
value"12.7mm"
name"Length"
value"1,654 mm"
name"Barrel Length"
value"1,143 mm"
name"Weight"
value"38 kg (83.78 lb) 58 kg (127.87 lb) with tripod and T&E (Traverse and Elevation Mechanism)"
name"Action"
value"Short recoil-operated"
name"Rate of Fire"
value"450–600 rounds/min"
name"Muzzle Velocity"
value"890 m/s"
name"Maximum Firing Range"
value"7,400 m"
name"Effective Firing Range"
value"1,800 m"
name"Feed System"
value"Belt-fed (M2 or M9 links)"
name"Sights"
value"INA"
name"Ammunition"
properties
name"Type"
value"Rifle"
name"Caliber"
value"12.7"
units"mm"
name"Cartridge"
value"12.7×99mm NATO"
name"Basic Load"
value"500 rounds"
name"Fire Control"
properties
name"Name"
value"INA"
name"Computerized FCS"
value"INA"
name"Thermal Sight Vehicle Commander"
value"INA"
name"Thermal Sight Gunner"
value"INA"
name"Main Gun Stabilization"
value"Yes"
name"Night Vision Devices"
value"Yes"
name"Protection"
properties
name"Hull Armor"
value"The M109’s protection consists of up to 32 millimeters of armor, which is only effective against small arms and grenade/artillery fragments."
name"Turret Armor"
value"INA, the turret takes up the rear. On top of the turret, there is a small cupola, from which the commander operates. This cupola is also fitted with a 12.7 mm (.50) M2HB heavy machine gun."
name"Applique Armor"
value"INA"
name"Explosive Reactive Armor"
value"INA"
name"Active Protection System"
value"INA"
name"Mine Clearing"
value"INA"
name"Self-Entrenching Blade"
value"INA"
name"NBC Protection"
value"none fitted"
name"Smoke Equipment"
value"INA"
name"Fire Suppression"
value"INA"
variants
name"M109"
notes"First produced in 1963. It had a 23 caliber 155 mm M126 gun in an M127 Howitzer Mount, and carried 28 rounds of 155 mm ammunition. It was also armed with a .50cal M2HB machine gun with 500 rounds of ammunition. Easily identified by its short barrel and a double baffle muzzle brake with a large fume extractor just behind it. Maximum range of 14,600 meters."
name"M109A1"
notes"Replaced the M126 gun with a longer barreled, 39 caliber M185 gun, increasing maximum range to 18,100 meters."
name"M109A2"
notes"Incorporated 27 Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability (RAM) mid-life improvements. Most notably, the long barreled 155 mm M185 cannon in the new M178 gun mount, ballistic protection for the panoramic telescope, counterbalanced travel lock, and the ability to mount the M140 alignment device. Stowage of 155mm rounds increased from 28 to 36 rounds; .50cal ammunition remained at 500 rounds. During M109A2 production, a slightly simplified version was also produced for export. This had minor internal changes and deleted the hull flotation feature. These were designated M109A1B."
name"M109A3 and M109A3B"
notes"M109A1s and M109A1Bs rebuilt to M109A2 standard respectively. Some A3s feature three contact arm assemblies, while all A2s have five."
name"M109A4"
notes"M109A2s and M109A3s improved with Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical / Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability (NBC/RAM) improvements, including air purifiers, heaters, and Mission Oriented Protective Posture (MOPP) gear. The traversing mechanism's clutch is hydraulic, as compared to the electric mechanism on previous M109s, and features a manual override in the event of an electrical failure. The A4 also adds an additional hydraulic filter, for a total of two. Also included is an improvement to the engine starting equipment, greatly improving the ability to start in an emergency. Ammunition amounts remain the same as two previous models."
name"M109A5"
notes"Replaces the 155 mm M185 cannon in an M178 mount with a 39-caliber 155 mm M284 cannon in an M182 mount, giving the A5 a maximum range of 22,000 meters with unassisted projectiles and 30,000 meters with Rocket Assisted Projectiles (RAP Rounds). The vehicle can carry 36 complete rounds of ammunition and has a 440 hp engine instead of the standard 405 hp engine."
name"M109A5+"
notes"Various manufacturers have upgraded the fire control and other components of the M109A5. BAE Systems in York PA recently delivered 12 M109A5+ vehicles to Chile and 32 for Brazil."
name"M109A6 "Paladin""
notes"Overall product improvement in the areas of survivability, RAM, and armament. This includes increased armor, a redesigned internal arrangement for safer ammunition and equipment storage, engine and suspension upgrades, and product improvement of the M284 cannon and M182A1 mount. The greatest difference is the integration of an inertial navigation system, sensors detecting the weapons' lay, automation, and an encrypted digital communication system, which utilizes computer controlled frequency hopping to avoid enemy electronic warfare and allow the howitzer to send grid location and altitude to the battery fire direction center (FDC). The battery FDCs in turn coordinate fires through a battalion or higher FDC. This allows the Palladin to halt from the move and fire within 30 seconds with an accuracy equivalent to the previous models when properly emplaced, laid, and safed—a process that required several minutes under the best of circumstances. Tactically, this improves the system's survivability by allowing the battery to operate dispersed by pairs across the countryside and allowing the howitzer to quickly displace between salvos, or if attacked by indirect fire, aircraft, or ground forces. Ammunition storage is increased from 36 to 39 155 mm rounds."
name"M109 "KAWEST""
notes"This Swiss improved version produced by Ruag incorporates a new Swiss-designed L47 155 mm gun with an increased firing range of up to 36 km. It features inertial navigation system coupled with a new gun-laying system and more ammunition storage(40 rounds, 64 charges). The KAWEST (lit. Kampfwertsteigerung = upgrade of combat capabilities) requires only 6 crew members instead of 8, and is able to fire 3-round bursts within 15 seconds or maintain a constant firing rate of over one round per minute.[9][10] Upgraded Swiss PzHb (Panzerhaubitze) 79 and 88 (M109A1) are known as respectively PzHb 79/95 and PzHb 88/95"
name"M109L52"
notes"Jointly developed by the Dutch firm RDM and the German firm Rheinmetall, the M109L52 was first revealed in 2002. The main improvement was replacing the M126 series gun with the longer 52-caliber cannon from the PzH 2000, thus the MTLS ammunition of the PzH 2000 can be used. In addition, improvements to the loading system were made. This resulted in an increase of the rate of fire to 9–10 rds/min from the original 3 rds/min, and this high rate of fire can be sustained for up to 2 minutes. A total of 35 rounds can be carried."
name"M109A3GNM"
notes"The current version in service with the Norwegian Army's Artilleribataljonen. 126 M109Gs were acquired from West Germany between 1969–1971. They were then upgraded to the M109A3GN configuration during the latter half of the 1980s. In 2006, there were still 56 M109A3GNs in the Army's inventory, meaning that at least 70 SPGs had been scrapped after the end of the Cold War. 14 of the M109A3GNs received additional upgrades in 2007, and were designated M109A3GNM. The upgrade includes, among other things, new intercom and new navigation and positioning systems. The M109A3GNMs are currently the only SPGs that remain in active service with the remainder of the M109s having been put in storage."
name"K55/K55A1"
notes"K55/K55A1 are South Korean variants of the M109A2 , originally named KM109A2 with additional domestic augmentations, license-produced by Samsung Techwin. They are fitted with M178 155 mm 39 caliber gun, NBC protection, automatic fire extinguishing system, and a modified ammunition reception module for K56 automatic ammunition resupply vehicle. The Performance Improvement Program variant, K55A1, is a complete domestic overhaul of the K55 which is further augmented by Samsung Thales with modern digital ballistic computers, multifunctional data display and controllers, GPS navigation and target acquisition system, wireless datalink equipment, and upgraded fire control storage battery and power supply unit, to closely match the US military's modernization of the Paladin into next-generation standard. Many improved technologies of the South Korean K9 Thunder were retrofitted on the K55A1. 1,040 howitzers of these variants were produced."
name"M109A7"
notes"The newest M109 version for U.S. service is the M109A7, formerly known as the M109A6 Paladin Integrated Management (PIM). The M109A7 shares common components with the Bradley Fighting Vehicle such as the engine, transmission, and tracks. This creates commonality with other systems and maximizes cost-savings in production, parts inventory, and maintenance personnel. The M109A7's on-board power systems harness technologies originally developed for the Non-Line-of-Sight Cannon; the electric drive is faster than the previous hydraulic system, and the automatic rammer more consistently rams the round into the gun for consistent velocities and better accuracy. It features a 600-volt on-board power system to accommodate additional armor and future networking technologies as they become ready. The M109A7 can sustain a one-round per-minute rate of fire and a maximum rate of fire of four rounds per-minute."
name"M109A3DK"
notes"Danish Variant of the M109"
type"WEG"
version1
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