WEG MediaWiki

S-75 Dvina (SA-2 Guideline) Russian Strategic Surface-to-Air Missile System

tiers
false
false
false
true
categories
"WEG"
"Air Defense"
"Infrared/Command Guidance Missile Systems"
"Medium-Range Missile Systems (More than 31 km)"
"Russia (RUS)"
"PRO_Armenia"
"PRO_Azerbaijan"
"PRO_Bulgaria"
"PRO_China"
"PRO_Cuba"
"PRO_Egypt"
"PRO_Ethiopia"
"PRO_Iran (Islamic Republic of)"
"PRO_Kyrgyzstan"
"PRO_Libya"
"PRO_Mongolia"
"PRO_Myanmar"
"PRO_North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of Korea)"
"PRO_Pakistan"
"PRO_Romania"
"PRO_Sudan"
"PRO_Syria"
"PRO_Tajikistan"
"PRO_Viet Nam"
"PRO_Yemen"
"PRO_Zimbabwe"
"Air"
"Tier4"
notes"The S-75 (Russian: С-75; NATO reporting name SA-2 Guideline) is a Soviet-designed, high-altitude air defence system, built around a surface-to-air missile with command guidance. Following its first deployment in 1957 it became one of the most widely deployed air defence systems in history. It scored the first destruction of an enemy aircraft by a surface-to-air missile, with the shooting down of a Taiwanese Martin RB-57D Canberra over China on 7 October 1959 that was hit by a salvo of three V-750 (1D) missiles at an altitude of 20 km (65,600 ft). This success was credited to Chinese fighter aircraft at the time in order to keep the S-75 program secret. This system first gained international fame when an S-75 battery, using the newer, longer-range and higher-altitude V-750VN (13D) missile was deployed in the 1960 U-2 incident, when it shot down the U-2 of Francis Gary Powers overflying the Soviet Union on May 1, 1960. The system was also deployed in Cuba during the Cuban Missile Crisis, when it shot down another U-2 (piloted by Rudolf Anderson) overflying Cuba on October 27, 1962, almost precipitating a nuclear war. North Vietnamese forces used the S-75 extensively during the Vietnam War to successfully defend Hanoi and Haiphong against US bombing. It has also been locally produced in the People's Republic of China under the names HQ-1 and HQ-2. Each battalion will typically have six, semi-fixed, single-rail launchers for their V-750 missiles positioned approximately 60 to 100 m (200 to 330 ft) apart from each other in a hexagonal "flower" pattern, with radars and guidance systems placed in the center. It was this unique "flower" shape that led to the sites being easily recognizable in reconnaissance photos. Typically another six missiles are stored on tractor-trailers near the center of the site. The V-750 is a two-stage missile consisting of a solid-fuel booster and a storable liquid-fuel upper stage, which burns red fuming nitric acid as the oxidizer and kerosene as the fuel. The booster fires for about 4–5 seconds and the main engine for about 22 seconds, by which time the missile is traveling at about Mach 3. The booster mounts four large, cropped-delta wing fins that have small control surfaces in their trailing edges to control roll. The upper stage has smaller cropped-deltas near the middle of the airframe, with a smaller set of control surfaces at the extreme rear and (in most models) much smaller fins on the nose. The missiles are guided using radio control signals (sent on one of three channels) from the guidance computers at the site. The earlier S-75 models received their commands via two sets of four small antennas in front of the forward fins while the D model and later models used four much larger strip antennas running between the forward and middle fins. The guidance system at an S-75 site can handle only one target at a time, but it can direct three missiles against it. Additional missiles could be fired against the same target after one or more missiles of the first salvo had completed their run, freeing the radio channel. The missile typically mounts a 195 kg (430 lb) fragmentation warhead, with proximity, contact, and command fusing. The warhead has a lethal radius of about 65 m (213 ft) at lower altitudes, but at higher altitudes the thinner atmosphere allows for a wider radius of up to 250 m (820 ft). The missile itself is accurate to about 75 m (246 ft), which explains why two were typically fired in a salvo. One version, the SA-2E, mounted a 295 kg (650 lb) nuclear warhead of an estimated 15 kiloton yield or a conventional warhead of similar weight. Typical range for the missile is about 45 km (28 mi), with a maximum altitude around 20,000 m (66,000 ft). The radar and guidance system imposed a fairly long short-range cutoff of about 500 to 1,000 m (1,600 to 3,300 ft), making them fairly safe for engagements at low level."
dateOfIntroduction1957
countryOfOrigin"Russia (RUS)"
proliferation"Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, China, Cuba, Egypt, Ethiopia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Kyrgyzstan, Libya, Mongolia, Myanmar, North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of Korea), Pakistan, Romania, Sudan, Syria, Tajikistan, Viet Nam, Yemen, Zimbabwe"
selectedregions
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checkedregions
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checkedcountries
"Armenia"
"Azerbaijan"
"Bulgaria"
"China"
"Cuba"
"Egypt"
"Ethiopia"
"Iran (Islamic Republic of)"
"Kyrgyzstan"
"Libya"
"Mongolia"
"Myanmar"
"North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of Korea)"
"Pakistan"
"Romania"
"Sudan"
"Syria"
"Tajikistan"
"Viet Nam"
"Yemen"
"Zimbabwe"
dis
name"SA 2 GUIDELINE TEL"
string"01.01.222.028.001.002.000"
images
"S-75-Guideline-Launcher.jpg"
"S-75Russian(B).jpg"
sections
name"System"
properties
name"Alternative Designation"
value"Volga-75SM, S-75 Dvina, V-75 Volkhov"
name"Function"
value"The SA-2 Guideline is a long-range, high-altitude, surface-to-air missile (SAM) in widespread use in Russia and other countries."
name"In Service"
value"1957-Present"
name"Manufacturer"
value"Raspletin KB-1 (head developer), Grushin MKB Fakel (missile developer), Lavochkin OKB"
name"Crew"
value"INA"
name"Wars"
value"Vietnam War, Six-Day War, Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, Yom Kippur War, Cold War, Iran–Iraq War, Gulf War, War in Abkhazia (1992–93), First Libyan Civil War, Syrian Civil War, Yemeni Civil War (2015–present), Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen, Saudi–Yemeni border conflict (2015–present)"
name"Guidance System"
value"Radio command guidance from Fan Song A/B; or E/F-band missile control radar; or Fan Song D/E G-band missile control radar Many installations have Spoon Rest early warning radar."
name"Note"
value"Each battalion will typically have six, semi-fixed, single-rail launchers for their V-750 missiles positioned approximately 60 to 100 m (200 to 330 ft) apart from each other in a hexagonal "flower" pattern, with radars and guidance systems placed in the center. It was this unique "flower" shape that led to the sites being easily recognizable in reconnaissance photos. Typically another six missiles are stored on tractor-trailers near the center of the site."
name"Dimensions"
properties
name"Booster Diameter"
value"0.70"
units"m"
name"Second Stage Diameter"
value"0.50"
units"m"
name"Length"
value"10.47"
units"m"
name"Wingspan"
value"2.50"
units"m"
name"Total Weight"
value"INA"
name"Automotive"
properties
name"Primary Propulsion Type"
value"solid-fuel booster"
name"Primary Propulsion Duration"
value"4-5 sec"
name"Secondary Propulsion Type"
value"liquid-fuel (nitric acid/hydrocarbon) sustainer"
name"Secondardy Propulsion Duration"
value"22 sec"
name"Note"
value"The missiles themselves are carried by a special transloader semi-trailer, which is towed by a Zil truck."
name"Missile System"
sections
name"Missile Launcher"
properties
name"Name"
value"INA"
name"Type"
value"Rail Guided"
name"Launcher Weight"
value"2,165"
units"kg"
name"Launch Rail/Tubes"
value"Single rail, ground mounted (not mobile)"
name"Reload Time"
value"12"
units"min"
name"Note"
value"S-75 Dvina and equipped with either V-750 or V-750V missiles."
name"Missile"
properties
name"Name"
value"Either the V-750 or V-750V missiles."
name"Type"
value"Standard"
name"Missile Length"
value"10.60"
units"m"
name"Missile Diameter"
value"0.70"
units"m"
name"Weight at Launch"
value"2,300"
units"kg"
name"Warhead Weight"
value"190"
units"kg"
name"Warhead Type"
value"HE 200kg (295kg SA-2E) 188kg (HQ-2B/F/J/P), possible nuclear"
name"Guidance System"
value"Command"
name"Maximum Velocity (Mach)"
value"Mach 4"
name"Bursting Radius Low Altitude"
value"125-135"
units"m"
name"Bursting Radius High Altitude"
value"250"
units"m"
name"Kill Radius"
value"65"
units"m"
name"CEP"
value"76"
units"m"
name"Maximum Effective Range"
value"30"
units"km"
name"Minimum Effective Range"
value"7"
units"km"
name"Maximum Altitude"
value"22,000"
units"m"
name"Minimum Altitude"
value"3,000"
units"m"
name"Fire Control System"
sections
name"Radar #1"
properties
name"Name"
value"Spoon Rest"
name"Type"
value"Spoon Rest is a Russian ground-based, early warning radar that later evolved into the Knife Rest** series."
name"Band"
value"A"
name"Frequency"
value"147-161 MHz"
name"Pulse Width"
value"4-6 microseconds"
name"Maximum Range"
value"275"
units"km"
name"Vertical Beamwidth"
value"2.5"
units"deg"
name"Horizontal Beamwidth"
value"7-9"
units"deg"
name"Peak Power"
value"180-350 kW"
name"Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF)"
value"310-400 Hz"
name"Radar #2"
properties
name"Name"
value"P-15 Flat Face"
name"Type"
value"2D UHF radar developed and operated by the former Soviet Union"
name"Band"
value"L-Band"
name"Frequency"
value"810-950 MHz"
name"Peak Power"
value"400"
units"kW"
name"Maximum Range"
value"250"
units"km"
name"Radar #3"
properties
name"Name"
value"PRV-11 Side Net"
name"Type"
value"Side Net is a ground-based height-finding radar used in a ground control intercept (GCI) mode with early-warning radars Bar Lock , Back Net and Tall King"
name"Band"
value"E Band"
name"Frequency"
value"2,560-2,710 MHz"
name"Antenna Height"
value"8.50"
units"m"
name"Antenna Width"
value"3.50"
units"m"
name"Average Range"
value"180"
units"km"
name"Maximum Range"
value"400"
units"km"
name"NOD CYCLES/SEC"
value"5-30"
name"Pulse Width"
value"3/1.5 micro sec"
name"Average Power"
value"1.3 kW"
name"Peak Power"
value"1.2 MW"
name"Radar #4"
properties
name"Name"
value"Fan Song A/B/F"
name"Type"
value"Fire control & Tracking Radar"
name"Band"
value"E/F, G Band"
name"Frequency"
value"3 GHz (S-band)"
name"Peak Power"
value"600 kW"
name"Maximum Range"
value"60"
units"km"
variants
name"SA-2A (Guideline Mod 0)"
notes"This was the initial variant of the SA-2, which was deployed around Moscow, Leningrad and in the Baku region. It was guided by the Fan Song A radar system. It was probably a pre-production version."
name"SA-2B (Guideline Mod 1)"
notes"This improved version replaced the Mod 0. It is slightly longer than the Guideline Mod 0 and is guided by the Fan Song B radar system."
name"SA-2C (Guideline Mod 2)"
notes"Developed at the same time as the Guideline-B, this variant is equipped with a modified Fan Song C/D G-band engagement radar. The missile itself has a longer engagement range and can attack targets that are at lower altitudes than earlier versions of the SA-2."
name"SA-2D (Guideline Mod 3)"
notes"This short-lived variant fired V-750AK missiles and operated with the Fan Song E radar. It was more capable of defeating targets in hostile electronic warfare environments. It was eventually superseded in Soviet service by the Guideline Mod 4."
name"SA-2E (Guideline Mod 4)"
notes"This variant, also known as the S-75M Volga, used the V-755 missile, which was characterized by a swelled warhead section that could be fitted with a 25 kT nuclear warhead. It was guided by the Fan Song F radar."
name"SA-2F (Guideline Mod 5)"
notes"This variant, also designated the S-75M3 Volkhov, was developed with some technology derived from the SA-3 Goa ** (see separate record). It utilizes the improved Fan Song E radar, which is much more capable of hitting targets in a heavy ECM environment. This is accomplished by deploying a two-man t eam in a "dog house" on top of the radar. These two crewmembers track targets when the normal automatic tracking system has been jammed."
name"S-75 Volga 2A"
notes"This version was developed in 1995. Twelve digital assemblies replaced 78 analog assemblies. It fired an upgraded V-755 missile and used a modernized Fan Song F radar. It was primarily intended for export."
name"S-75 Volga 2T"
notes"Belarusian firm Tetraedr in 2004 began offering the S-75 Volga 2T upgrade kit. This included digital electronics and enhanced radars, launch control and missiles."
name"SA-N-2"
notes"This is the naval version of the SA-2. The mount included a twin-arm launcher fed by a large drum magazine. A navalized version of the Fan Song E radar was equipped, along with a High Lune** height finding radar."
name"Iraqi modified SA-2 Guideline"
notes"Iraq announced in 1989 that it had modified a number of SA-2s with an infrared terminal guidance system that improved the missile's capability against targets in high ECM environments. If the missile lost lock at this stage, the weapon could switch back to radio guidance. Iraq also attempted other modifications"
name"CSS-8"
notes"his is a short-range ballistic missile based on the SA-2."
name"Sayyad-1"
notes"This is an Iranian reverse-engineered version of the SA-2. It is believed to have entered service in 1998. The design is also influenced by the Chinese HQ-2 and may feature some North Korean technology."
name"Sayyad-2"
notes"This is an Iranian upgrade of the Sayyad-1, based on both the SA-2 and the Chinese HQ-2."
name"RM-75MVU-1/VU-1 target missiles"
notes"his is a low-altitude (RM-75MVU-1) and high-altitude (RM-75VU-1) target missile based on the SA-2 was announced by Russia in mid-2004. The target missiles were to be used to test new surface-to-air missile systems being designed by the Almaz research and production association."
name"Qaher-1/-M2"
notes"These variants based on the S-75/SA-2 have been used by Houthi rebels in Yemen. The Qaher-1 was revealed in 2015 with a range of 186.4 mi (300 km) and warhead weighing 440.9 lb (200 kg)."
type"WEG"
version1
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