|"Rocket Artillery Systems"|
|"Light Rocket Systems (Up to 50 km)"|
|"China, People's Republic of"|
|notes||"The Type 90 is the second-generation truck-mounted 122mm 40-tube multiple launch rocket system developed by China North Industries Group Corporation (NORINCO) in the mid-1990s as a successor to the Type 81 122mm rocket system. The Type 90 has been promoted by NORINCO to the export market, but has yet received any order. The improved Type 90B was first revealed in 2004.
The Chinese Type 90 122mm MLRS system utilizing/based on the Russian BM-21 Grad’s launcher.
The vehicle was developed as the replacement for the older Type 81, which it too had the same BM-21 Grad’s launcher and entered PLA service around the early 1990’s.
The vehicle is based on the 2629 6X6 military truck, which is longer than the Type 81’s. The increased length means that the vehicle can mount a reloading mechanism which contains a rack of 40 spare rockets. This is able to reload the launcher in a reported time of 3 minutes and allows the vehicle to remain in the fight for longer before having to withdraw to reload.
The Type 90 fires 122mm fin-stabilised free rockets to a minimum range of 10~12km and a maximum range of 20~40km depending on the rocket type. The rocket can be fitted with various types of warheads including anti-armour/personnel sub-munitions, blasting, fuel air explosive (FAE), and high-explosive (HE).
The PLA developed the Type 81 122mm 40-tube multiple launch rocket system based on the Soviet BM-21 Grad in the early 1980s. In the mid-1990s NORINCO revealed a new 122mm rocket system design known as Type 90. The biggest difference on the Type 90 is the reload pack carrying 40 spare rockets, which can reload the rocket launcher within 3 minutes after the first launch, providing additional firepower with quick turnarounds. The launcher is mounted on the improved North-Benz 2629 6X6 truck, which possesses better performance compared to the Yanan SX2150 truck used by the Type 81.
The Type 90 is also supported by a large formation of ground equipment including a battery command truck, rocket reloading trucks, reconnaissance APC, meteorological radar, and maintenance vehicles. Greater firing accuracy is ensured by the use of a computerized fire-control system integrated with GPS on the improved Type 90B. The weapon system could deliver intensive fire-power over a distance of 40km within a very short period. The weapon was designed to engage large area targets such as armour formation, airport, weapon storages, etc. NORINCO has developed a range of warheads for different purposes."|
|countryOfOrigin||"China, People's Republic of"|
|name||"MRL TYPE 90B WHL 122MM"|
|value||"Multiple Launch Rocket System"|
|value||"Tiema SC2030 6 x 6 truck"|
|value||"Less than 10 min"|
|value||"Less than 10 min"|
|name||"Type 90 Battalion comprises"|
|value||"A typical Type 90 multiple launch rocket system battalion comprises the battalion headquarters and three firing units (companies). The battalion headquarter is equipped with:
*A battalion command truck;
*3 reconnaissance APC;
*A meteorological radar truck;
*A mechanical maintenance truck;
*A electronic maintenance truck
Each firing unit is equipped with:
*A company command truck;
*6 rocket launch trucks
*6 reloading trucks"|
|name||"Speed, Maximum Road"|
|name||"Speed, Average Cross"|
|name||"Speed Maximum Swim"|
|name||"Main Weapon System"|
|value||"The electrically powered launcher has four rows of 10 tubes mounted above each other on a rotating cradle assembly."|
|value||"0% to +55%"|
|value||"-102% to +1-2%"|
|value||"The truck is equipped with two hydraulically operated stabilisers at rear which are lowered in preparation for the rocket launch."|
|value||"The rocket launcher can be operated in manual, semi-automatic, or automatic modes. The electrical firing system fires the rockets in either single or in salvo with 0.5 seconds interval."|
|value||"The launcher can be operated inside the driver's cab or remotely outside the vehicle."|
|name||"Rate of Fire"|
|value||"40 rds in 18-20 sec"|
|value||"The reloading rack located in front of the launcher can load the launcher in under 3 minutes."|
|value||"The truck is equipped with a hydraulically operated foldable canvas cover, which covers the launcher and the reloading rack when the truck is in travelling mode."|
|value||"The vehicle is fitted with slope and gradient sensors, launcher elevation and and azimuth sensors, as well as GPS and computerised fire control system to ensure higher firing accuracy."|
|value||"The free rocket used by the WS-1 and WS-1B consists of the warhead and fuse, an FG-42/43 rocket motor and the tail section. The FG-42/43 rocket motor is a single chamber, solid rocket motor with an advanced hydroxy-terminated polybutadine (HTPB) composition rocket propellant. The rocket of the WS-2 system features four control surfaces in the middle section of the rocket for terminal guidance."|
|value||"The rocket can be fitted with various types of warheads including anti-armour/personnel submunition, blasting, fuel air explosive (FAE), and high-explosive (HE). The ZDB-2 blasting warhead is loaded with steel balls and prefabricated fragments. The SZB-1 submunition warhead is designed to destroy large area targets such as armour formation and infantry troops. When the SZB-1 submunition warhead detonates, around 500 bullets are expelled under high pressure."|
|value||"Yes, The launcher is controlled by computer through a man-machine interface. Another interface connects to a battalion central command system. Instructions can be input directly from the interface or manually through push-buttons."|
|name||"Position Location System"|
|name||"Automatic Operating and Laying System"|
|value||"The automatic operating and laying system consists of five main subsystems: an HJ-1 mini-computer; launcher direction-finder (which requires less than 3 sec to display the launcher's magnetic azimuth angle); longitudinal and transversal slope sensors; launcher assembly elevation and traverse positi on sensors; and a special vehicle power supply interface unit."|
|name||"Explosive Reactive Armor"|
|name||"Active Protection System"|
|notes||"This is an improved version. The major upgrades include the ability to launch all types of 122-mm unguided rockets to a maximum range of 25 mi (40 km), including high-explosive and high-explosive incendiary weapons, and the installation of a new computerized fire-control system with a GPS and north -finding device for greater accuracy. The panoramic sight on the left side of the launcher is retained for manual laying. A third improvement is a high level of automation for the operator. The command post vehicle can control a number of Type 90A systems by remote control."|
|notes||"This is the latest variant of the system. The Type 90B system features a reconnaissance vehicle, as well as mobility and reliability improvements. Emplacement and displacement time is seven minutes.
A standard Type 90B battalion would consist of three WZ 551 6 x 6 reconnaissance vehicles; battalion command vehicle based on a Mercedes-Benz 4 x 4 chassis; meteorological radar on two Steyr 4 x 4 vehicles; two Steyr 4 x 4 maintenance vehicles, one for mechanical and one for electronic maintenance; and three missile batteries."|